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  • Kara Maddox

Special Collection: Pesticide Exposure in Non-Honey Bees


The original article was published by Oxford Academic and can be found here.



Bees are essential pollinators of a variety of plants, including many used for human food. In recent years, there have been declines in bee populations due to a variety of factors. One of those factors is pesticides.


While honey bees (genus Apis) tend to get a lot of attention in the media and research, non-honey bees are also important pollinators and could face similar threats from pesticides as honey bees do. However, not as much is known about how pesticides affect non-Apis bees, such as bumble bees, solitary bees, and stingless bees.


In order to help fill the knowledge gap, a workshop was held that brought together experts in non-Apis bees from academia, regulatory bodies, and industry. These experts sought to answer questions such as:


• What is currently known about non-Apis species and how their life history traits differ from honey bees in relation to exposure to pesticides?
• What are dominant exposure routes and secondary exposure routes to pesticides for solitary bees and social non-Apis bees?
• Is the honey bee a good surrogate for evaluating exposure for other bees?  • What research needs to be conducted?

The logistical details, discussions, and synthesized outcomes of the workshop have been compiled into a special collection of papers published in Environmental Entomology, including a preface paper that expounds on the reasons for the workshop and the collection.


The papers are freely available to read and download and can be accessed here.

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